Anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging.

M. S. Zimbler*, M. S. Kokoska, J. R. Thomas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations

Abstract

The major forces responsible for facial aging include gravity, soft tissue maturation, skeletal remodeling, muscular facial activity, and solar changes. This article discusses the anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging by defining the affects of the aging process on the skeletal structure, skin, and musculature. How these changes affect the upper, mid, and lower thirds of the aging face is then examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-187, vii
JournalFacial plastic surgery clinics of North America
Volume9
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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