Introduction: Barrett's esophagus is an acquired condition that develops as a result of transformation of normal stratified squamous epithelium in the lower part of the esophagus into columnar epithelium. Barrett's esophagus is considered to be a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Various endoscopic techniques have been shown to be successful in the treatment of this condition. However, long-term success in preventing further esophageal dysplasia is not clear. Biological welding consists in the application of controlled high-frequency current on living tissues and has been used to stop gastrointestinal bleeding, similarly to the APC technique which involves ablation of small intestinal metaplasia of the esophageal mucosa. Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic techniques in the treatment of Barrett's esophagus and verify the need for a subsequent surgical intervention in patients with GERD complicated by Barrett's esophagus. Material and methods: Patients with Barrett's esophagus C1-3M2-4 (Prague classification from 2004) and high dysplasia without nodules, as well as patients with confirmed GERD without hiatal hernia, were included in this study. Endoscopic treatment was performed with the use of argonoplasmic coagulation (APC) and high-frequency welding of living tissues (HFW). After the examination the patients were re-examined. Patients with recurrence of metaplasia and high DeMeester score (100) underwent antireflux surgery - crurography and Nissen fundoplication with creation of a soft and short cuff. Results: A total of 89 patients were included in the study, 81 of whom were reexamined after ablation of Barrett's esophagus. In 12 patients, a recurrence of intestinal metaplasia resembling the small intestine was identified. Implementation of two-stage treatment was required for 9 patients - it involved a second procedure of ablation of the esophagus, followed by antireflux surgery. Surgical treatment was refused by 3 patients, who underwent only the second ablation procedure. All patients received drug therapy, consisting of prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors. Esophageal pH monitoring was repeated 3 months after surgery, showing normalization of the DeMeester score. As a result, the patients experienced no complaints such as heartburn, chest pain or dysphagia, which significantly improved their quality of life. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy of the mucous membrane of the lower third of the esophagus were performed in accordance with the Seattle Protocol. After examining histological specimens, no regions of metaplasia were identified. Conclusion: Antireflux surgery is required as a part of the treatment for Barrett's esophagus, which prevents further dysplasia and development of esophageal cancer.
- Antireflux operation
- Argonoplasmic coagulation
- Barrett's esophagus
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- High-frequency welding of living tissues
ASJC Scopus subject areas