Influenza causes annual epidemics of respiratory viral infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been shown to reduce the risk of infection and mitigate against some of the virus' sequellae. Likewise, two classes of antivirals, the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) and the neuraminidase inhibitors (laninamivir, oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir) are currently approved for the prevention and treatment of influenza; several other classes of antivirals and immune modulators are also currently under investigation. One of the greatest challenges to our armamentarium of antivirals is the emergence of resistant mutants. In this paper, we will review the currently approved and investigational antiviral agents and the mechanisms of resistance that impact their activity.
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