Application and pitfalls of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of challenging genitourinary cases

Jenny Ross, Guangyuan Li, Ximing J. Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context.—Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become increasingly important in the evaluation of pathologic conditions in the genitourinary (GU) organs. In addition to careful evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin sections and generation of a differential diagnosis, choosing the optimal panel of IHC markers becomes even more important when the biopsy material is very limited. The following summary of our experience supplemented with relevant literature review exemplifies how to use IHC to facilitate pathologic diagnosis in the GU system. Objective.—To describe our experience with the most common immunohistochemical markers used in GU pathology. Data Sources.—Institutional experience and literature search comprise our data sources. Conclusions.—Application of IHC provides enormous benefits to the interpretation of GU pathologic conditions, including benign and malignant lesions. However, both insufficient and excessive types of use of IHC, as well as incorrect interpretations in common and rare GU conditions, could present pitfalls in diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-304
Number of pages15
JournalArchives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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