Application of hybrid approach for estimating the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium for adverse renal effects in the general population of Japan

Yasushi Suwazono*, Kazuhiro Nogawa, Mirei Uetani, Katsuyuki Miura, Kiyomi Sakata, Akira Okayama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Jeremiah Stamler, Hideaki Nakagawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

We used an updated hybrid approach to estimate the benchmark doses and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) for cadmium-induced renal effects in humans. Participants were 828 inhabitants (410 men, 418 women), aged 40-59 years who lived in three areas without any known environmental cadmium pollution. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of exposure, and urinary protein, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as markers of renal effects. For urinary protein, the BMDL ranged from 0.9 to 1.1 μg g-1 creatinine (cre) and approximately 1.6 μg per 24 h in men, and from 1.9 to 3.4 μg g-1 cre and 2.0 μg per 24 h in women. For the renal tubular markers β2-MG and NAG, the BMDL for U-Cd ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 μg g-1 cre and from 0.8 to 1.7 μg per 24 h in men, and from 0.6 to 2.3 μg g-1 cre and from 0.6 to 2.1 μg per 24 h in women. The lowest BMDL for urinary cadmium (0.6 μg g-1 cre) was somewhat lower than average urinary cadmium in Japanese older population. These results suggest the importance of measures to decrease cadmium exposure in the general population of Japan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-93
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Applied Toxicology
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Keywords

  • Benchmark dose
  • Human
  • Renal effect
  • Risk assessment
  • Urinary cadmium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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