Application of multilayer coatings to replicated substrates

S. Romaine*, A. Hussain, J. Everett, A. Clark, R. Bruni, P. Gorenstein, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, O. Citterio, J. Pedulla

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We are engaged in a program to develop focussing hard X-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 kev by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SAX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents. While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-259
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1997
EventGrazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Jul 27 1997Jul 29 1997


  • Multilayers
  • Replicated Substrates
  • X-ray Telescopes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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