Mouse models of allergic disease offer numerous advantages when compared to the models of other animals. However, selection of appropriate mouse models is critical to advance the field of food allergy by revealing mechanisms of allergy and for testing novel therapeutic approaches. All current mouse models for food allergy have weaknesses that may limit their applicability to human disease. Aspects such as the genetic predisposition to allergy or tolerance from the strain of mouse used, allergen dose, route of exposure (oral, intranasal, intraperitoneal, or epicutaneous), damage of the epithelial barrier, use of adjuvants, food matrix effects, or composition of the microbiota should be considered prior to the selection of a specific murine model and contemplated according to the intended purpose of the study. This chapter reviews our current knowledge on the application of mouse models to food allergy research and the variables that may influence the successful development of each type of model.