Approaches for restoring elbow extension in tetraplegia: Muscle tendon transfer and functional neuromuscular stimulation

R. F. Kirsch*, A. M. Acosta, E. J. Perreault, W. D. Memberg, M. W. Keith, P. E. Crago

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article


Tetraplegia resulting - from cervical level spinal cord injury typically leaves the triceps muscles paralyzed, with the resulting loss of elbow extension function. Elbow extension is essential for many daily activities, so its restoration is important in the rehabilitation of the spinal cord injured individual. This paper compares the widely used surgical transfer of the posterior deltoid muscle, which restores voluntary control over elbow extension, to a technique based on functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) of the triceps muscles. Both methods were found to restore a modest level of elbow extension. The posterior deltoid transfers produced variable results and the resulting elbow extension moments were strongly dependent on shoulder position.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-444
Number of pages2
JournalAnnual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 1996
EventProceedings of the 1996 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Part 2 (of 5) - Amsterdam, Neth
Duration: Oct 31 1996Nov 3 1996


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Health Informatics

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