Approaches to answering critical CER questions

Christine V. Kinnier, Jeanette W Chung, Karl Y Bilimoria*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalCancer treatment and research
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Comparative effectiveness research
  • Observational and database studies
  • Pragmatic trials
  • Surgical oncology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Approaches to answering critical CER questions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this