Arabidopsis defense mutant ndr1-1 displays accelerated development and early flowering mediated by the hormone gibberellic acid

Nikhilesh Dhar*, Dylan P.G. Short, Bullo Erena Mamo, Alex J. Corrion, Ching Man Wai, Amy Anchieta, Robert VanBuren, Brad Day, Husein Ajwa, Krishna V. Subbarao, Steven J. Klosterman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE (NDR1)is a widely characterized gene that plays a key role in defense against multiple bacterial, fungal, oomycete and nematode plant pathogens. NDR1 is required for activation of resistance by multiple NB and LRR-containing (NLR)protein immune sensors and contributes to basal defense. The role of NDR1 in positively regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense responses is well documented. However, ndr1-1 plants flower earlier and show accelerated development in comparison to wild type (WT)Arabidopsis plants, indicating that NDR1 is a negative regulator of flowering and growth. Exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA)further accelerates the early flowering phenotype in ndr1-1 plants, while the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol attenuated the early flowering phenotype of ndr1-1, but not to WT levels, suggesting partial resistance to paclobutrazol and enhanced GA response in ndr1-1 plants. Mass spectroscopy analyses confirmed that ndr1-1 plants have 30–40% higher levels of GA3 and GA4, while expression of various GA metabolic genes and major flowering regulatory genes is also altered in the ndr1-1 mutant. Taken together this study provides evidence of crosstalk between the ndr1-1-mediated defense and GA-regulated developmental programs in plants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)200-213
Number of pages14
JournalPlant Science
Volume285
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Arabidopsis NDR1
  • Defense and development
  • Disease resistance
  • Flowering time
  • Gibberellic acid
  • Salicylic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

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