Architecture of selected wrist flexor and extensor muscles

Richard L. Lieber*, Babak M. Fazeli, Michael J. Botte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

206 Scopus citations


The architectural features of 25 wrist flexor and extensor muscles were studied. Muscles included the flexor carpi ulnaris, the flexor carpi radialis, the extensor carpi ulnaris, the extensor capri radialis brevis, and the extensor carpi radialis longus. Muscle length, mass, fiber pennation angle, fiber length, and sarcomere length (by use of laser diffraction techniques) were determined. In addition, physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. The muscles were found to be highly specialized, with architectural features of same muscles very similar. The fiber length/muscle length ratio, muscle length, and pennation angle represented the major differences between muscles. Thus using these parameters in discriminant analysis permitted correct identification of each of the 25 muscles. In terms of size and intrinsic design, these individual muscles were highly specialized for their function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-250
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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