The current investigation examined whether two dimensions of children's temperament-effortful control and negative emotionality-moderated links between mothers' welfare and work transitions and preschoolers' developmental trajectories (N = 445). Data were drawn from a sample of low-income, predominantly ethnic minority children and their mothers, when children were ages 2-4, and again 16 months later. Among children whose mothers' left welfare or entered work, high effortful control and low negative emotionality were not protective factors in children's socioemotional or cognitive functioning. However, when mothers experienced job loss or entered the welfare system, preschoolers with high effortful control displayed better developmental outcomes over time than children with low effortful control.
- Cognitive development
- Socioemotional development
- Welfare reform
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science