There is growing evidence that people who are transgender and gender diverse (TGD) are impacted by disparities across a variety of cardiovascular risk factors compared with their peers who are cisgender. Prior literature has characterized disparities in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as a result of a higher prevalence of health risk behaviors. Mounting research has revealed that cardiovascular risk factors at the individual level likely do not fully account for increased risk in cardiovascular health disparities among people who are TGD. Excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is hypothesized to be driven in part by psychosocial stressors across the lifespan at multiple levels, including structural violence (eg, discrimination, affordable housing, access to health care). This American Heart Association scientific statement reviews the existing literature on the cardiovascular health of people who are TGD. When applicable, the effects of gender-affirming hormone use on individual cardiovascular risk factors are also reviewed. Informed by a conceptual model building on minority stress theory, this statement identifies research gaps and provides suggestions for improving cardiovascular research and clinical care for people who are TGD, including the role of resilience-promoting factors. Advancing the cardiovascular health of people who are TGD requires a multifaceted approach that integrates best practices into research, health promotion, and cardiovascular care for this understudied population.
- AHA Scientific Statements
- cardiovascular disease
- minority stress theory
- social determinants of health
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)