Assessing Disparities in the Prevalence of Atopic Comorbidities Among Food-Allergic Children

Anandu Dileep, Christopher Warren, Lucy A. Bilaver, Ellen Stephen, Aame B. Andy-Nweye, Susan Fox, Jialing Jiang, Pamela J. Newmark, Annika Chura, Iman Abdikarim, Sai R. Nimmagadda, Hemant P. Sharma, Mary C. Tobin, Amal H. Assa'ad, Ruchi S. Gupta, Mahboobeh Mahdavinia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Previous studies have reported that Black children with food allergy (FA) have higher risk of atopic comorbidities than White children. Objective: Our study sought to understand if disparities in the prevalence of atopic comorbidities among children with FA are driven by individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We analyzed data from a prospective, multicenter cohort investigating the natural history of pediatric atopy: the Food Allergy Outcomes Related to White and African American Racial Differences (FORWARD) study. A validated, multicomponent area deprivation index (ADI) percentile score was tabulated by the census block group for each subject's home address. The association of ADI with atopic comorbidities in FA was assessed via multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of the 700 children in this study, the mean ADI was 37.7 (95% confidence interval: 35.6-39.7). The mean ADI was higher in children with asthma (43.3) compared with those without asthma (31.8), which remained significant after adjusting for race (P < .0001). Children with allergic rhinitis (AR) had a higher mean ADI (39.1) compared with those without (33.4) (P = .008). ADI was associated with secondhand smoking, parents’ education, and household income. Black children had a higher risk for asthma after adjusting for ADI and SES-related factors. Conclusion: The independent association of ADI with asthma and AR, regardless of race, suggests a role of neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation in the development of these conditions among children with FA. Black children with FA remained at higher risk for asthma after adjusting for SES-related variables, which can indicate an independent risk for asthma in these children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1169-1176
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Asthma
  • Disparities
  • Eczema
  • Food allergy
  • Race
  • Socioeconomic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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