Assessing outcome expectations in older adults: The multidimensional outcome expectations for exercise scale

Thomas R. Wójcicki, Siobhan M. White, Edward McAuley*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Scopus citations


Outcome expectations, an important element of social cognitive theory, have been associated with physical activity in older adults. Yet, the measurement of this construct has often adopted a unidimensional approach. We examined the validity of a theoretically consistent three-factor (physical, social, and self-evaluative) outcome expectations exercise scale in middle-aged and older adults (N = 320; M age = 63.8). Participants completed questionnaires assessing outcome expectations, physical activity, self-efficacy, and health status. Comparisons of the hypothesized factor structure with competing models indicated that a three-factor model provided the best fit for the data. Construct validity was further demonstrated by significant association with physical activity and self-efficacy and differential associations with age and health status. Further evidence of validity and application to social cognitive models of physical activity is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-40
Number of pages8
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009



  • Exercise
  • Older adults
  • Outcome expectations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

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