Assessment of Racial Disparity in Survival Outcomes for Early Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer after Adjusting for Insurance Status and Neighborhood Deprivation: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Gelareh Sadigh*, Robert J. Gray, Joseph A. Sparano, Betina Yanez, Sofia F. Garcia, Lava R. Timsina, Samilia Obeng-Gyasi, Ilana Gareen, George W. Sledge, Timothy J. Whelan, David Cella, Lynne I. Wagner, Ruth C. Carlos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Importance: Racial disparities in survival outcomes among Black women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer have been reported. However, the association between individual-level and neighborhood-level social determinants of health on such disparities has not been well studied. Objective: To evaluate the association between race and clinical outcomes (ie, relapse-free interval and overall survival) adjusting for individual insurance coverage and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI), measured using zip code of residence, in women with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a post hoc analysis of 9719 women with breast cancer in the Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment, a randomized clinical trial conducted from April 7, 2006, to October 6, 2010. All participants received a diagnosis of hormone receptor-positive, ERBB2-negative, axillary node-negative breast cancer. The present data analysis was conducted from April 1 to October 22, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: A multivariate model was developed to evaluate the association between race and relapse-free interval and overall survival adjusting for insurance and NDI level at study entry, early discontinuation of endocrine therapy 4 years after initiation, and clinicopathologic characteristics of cancer. Median follow-up for clinical outcomes was 96 months. Results: A total of 9719 women (4.2% [n = 405] Asian; 7.1% [n = 693] Black; 84.3% [n = 8189] White; 4.4% [n = 403] others/not specified) were included; 9.1% of included women [n = 889] were Hispanic or Latino. Median (SD) age was 56 (9.2) years. In multivariate models, Black race compared with White race was associated with statistically significant shorter relapse-free interval (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84; P =.02) and overall survival (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10-2.99; P =.009), adjusting for insurance and NDI level at study entry and other factors. Although uninsured status was not associated with clinical outcomes, patients with Medicare (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68; P =.04) and Medicaid (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.05; P =.05) had shorter overall survival compared with those with private insurance. Participants living in neighborhoods in the highest NDI quartile experienced shorter overall survival compared with those in the lowest quartile (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.77; P =.04), regardless of self-identified race. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial suggest that Black women with breast cancer have significantly shorter relapse-free interval and overall survival compared with White women. Early discontinuation of endocrine therapy, clinicopathologic characteristics, insurance coverage, and NDI do not fully explain the observed disparity. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00310180.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)579-586
Number of pages8
JournalJAMA Oncology
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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