Association between intergenerational violence exposure and maternal age of menopause

Holly Foster*, John Hagan, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Jess Garcia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective:To investigate whether maternal violence exposure personally and through her child is associated with an earlier age of menopause, controlling for covariates.Methods:Analyses used merged data from two related sources. Although mothers (n = 1,466) were interviewed in 1995 and then 20 years later (2015-17), their children were interviewed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health repeatedly (Waves 1-4, 1994/5 to 2008-2009). Mothers reported their own age of menopause, and mothers and adolescents each reported their own exposure to violence as children and adults.Results:A mother's own childhood physical abuse (b = -1.60, P < .05) and her child's sexual abuse (b = -1.39, P < .01) both were associated with an earlier age of menopause. Mothers who were physically abused in childhood and have a child who experienced regular sexual abuse reached menopause 8.78 years earlier than mothers without a history of personal abuse or abuse of their child.Conclusions:Our study is the first to find that age of natural menopause is associated with intergenerational violence exposures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)284-292
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 14 2022


  • Child's physical and sexual abuse
  • Intergenerational influences
  • Menopausal timing
  • Personal physical abuse
  • Reproductive aging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Association between intergenerational violence exposure and maternal age of menopause'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this