We aimed to investigate the influence of class I and class II HLA specificities and of the concordance between maternal and infant HLA on vertical HIV-1 transmission. HLA typing of samples from mothers and infants enrolled in the Ariel study, a perinatal HIV-1 transmission cohort including 203 mother-infant pairs, was performed by serological and molecular methods. HLA effects were evaluated alone and by multivariate modeling considering also other known predictors of perinatal HIV-1 transmission (maternal viral load, anti-retroviral therapy, duration of rupture of membranes, and histological chorioamnionitis). Modest associations were seen with specific HLA markers (increased risk with infant B67 and B58 and maternal DR1; decreased risk with maternal B12), but these were not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Mother-infant concordance at any class I locus was a strong predictor of transmission (odds ratio [OR], 4.16; p = 0.028). Transmission was not associated with class II concordance. Class I HLA concordance retained its importance after adjusting for maternal viral load, antiretroviral therapy, duration of rupture of membranes or histological chorioamnionitis. In multivariate modeling, only class I concordance (OR, 3.59;p = 0.069) and chorioamnionitis (OR, 3.79;p = 0.030) were retained as independent predictors of transmission. HLA alleles, and in particular the class I concordance between maternal and neonatal HLA, may regulate the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases