Association between urinary cadmium levels and prediabetes in the NHANES 2005-2010 population

Amisha Wallia*, Norrina Bai Allen, Sylvia Badon, Malek El Muayed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Evidence suggests an association between exposure to cadmium and dysglycemia. To investigate this matter, we examined the relationship between urinary cadmium and prediabetes in the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES participants for the years 2005 through 2010 aged ≥40 years were included in the analysis. Participants with nephropathy, overt diabetes, or missing required data were excluded. To assess the non-linear relationship between cadmium and Prediabetes, non-parametric logistic regression with B spline expansion of urinary cadmium/creatinine ratio was performed. This analysis revealed a complex non-linear association between higher cadmium levels and prediabetes. This relationship persisted, though with varying magnitudes across smoking groups (never smokers, moderate smokers, heavy smokers). In a conventional logistic regression analysis, this relationship was less evident with significantly increased OR for prediabetes was found in the highest quintile of urine cadmium compared to the lowest quintile in the overall population and in moderate smokers. In an age stratified analysis, a significant linear association was found only in the age groups 60-69 and ≥70. We conclude that there is a significant non-linear, complex relationship between urinary Cd levels, age, smoking habits and odds of prediabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)854-860
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Cadmium
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Prediabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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