Objectives: To examine elevated neonatal inflammatory and neurotrophic proteins from children born extremely preterm in relation to later childhood brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging volumes and cognition. Study design: We measured circulating inflammation-related proteins and neurotrophic proteins on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 in 166 children at 10 years of age (73 males; 93 females). Top quartile levels on ≥2 days for ≥3 inflammation-related proteins and for ≥4 neurotrophic proteins defined exposure. We examined associations among protein levels, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging volumes, and cognition with multiple linear and logistic regressions. Results: Analyses were adjusted for gestational age at birth and sex. Children with ≥3 elevated inflammation-related proteins had smaller grey matter, brain stem/cerebellar, and total brain volumes than those without elevated inflammation-related proteins, adjusted for neurotrophic proteins. When adjusted for inflammation-related proteins, children with ≥4 neurotrophic proteins, compared with children with no neurotrophic proteins, had larger grey matter and total brain volumes. Higher grey matter, white matter, and cerebellum and brainstem volumes were significantly correlated with higher IQ. Grey and white matter volumes were correlated with each other (r = −0.18; P =.021), and cerebellum and brainstem was highly correlated with grey matter (r = 0.55; P <.001) and white matter (r = 0.29; P <.001). Adjusting for other brain compartments, cerebellum and brainstem was associated with IQ (P =.016), but the association with white matter was marginally significant (P =.051). Grey matter was not associated with IQ. After adjusting for brain volumes, elevated inflammation-related proteins remained significantly associated with a lower IQ, and elevated neurotrophic proteins remained associated with a higher IQ. Conclusions: Newborn inflammatory and neurotrophin protein levels are associated with later brain volumes and cognition, but their effects on cognition are not entirely explained by altered brain volumes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health