Association of early HIV viremia with mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma

Satish Gopal*, Monita R. Patel, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Stephen R. Cole, Chad J. Achenbach, Sonia Napravnik, Greer A. Burkholder, Erin G. Reid, Benigno Rodriguez, Steven G. Deeks, Kenneth H. Mayer, Richard D. Moore, Mari M. Kitahata, Kristy L. Richards, Joseph J. Eron

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine the association between early HIV viremia and mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma. Design: Multicenter observational cohort study. Setting: Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort. Participants: HIV-infected patients with lymphoma diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, who were alive 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis and with at least two HIV RNA values during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis. Exposure: Cumulative HIV viremia during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, expressed as viremia copy-6-months. Main outcome measure: All-cause mortality between 6 months and 5 years after lymphoma diagnosis. Results: Of 224 included patients, 183 (82%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 41 (18%) had Hodgkin lymphoma. At lymphoma diagnosis, 105 (47%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median CD4+ cell count was 148 cells/μl (interquartile range 54-322), and 33% had suppressed HIV RNA (<400 copies/ml). In adjusted analyses, mortality was associated with older age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.37 per decade increase, 95% CI 1.03-1.83], lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02-2.63), lower CD4+ cell count (AHR 0.75 per 100 cells/μl increase, 95% CI 0.64-0.89), and higher early cumulative viremia (AHR 1.35 per log10copies × 6-months/ml, 95% CI 1.11-1.65). The detrimental effect of early cumulative viremia was consistent across patient groups defined by ART status, CD4 + cell count, and histology. Conclusion: Exposure to each additional 1-unit log10 in HIV RNA throughout the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis was associated with a 35% increase in subsequent mortality. These results suggest that early and effective ART during chemotherapy may improve survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2365-2373
Number of pages9
Issue number15
StatePublished - Sep 24 2013


  • AIDS
  • Burkitt lymphoma
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  • HIV
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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