Background: Understanding modifiable surgical risk factors is essential for preoperative optimization. We evaluated the association between smoking and complications following major gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: Patients who underwent elective colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, or hepatic procedures were identified in the 2017 ACS NSQIP dataset. The primary outcome was 30-day death or serious morbidity (DSM). Secondary outcomes included pulmonary complications, wound complications, and readmission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between smoking and these outcomes. Results: A total of 46,921 patients were identified, of whom 7,671 (16.3%) were smokers. Smoking was associated with DSM (23.2% vs. 20.4%, OR 1.15 [1.08–1.23]), wound complications (13.0% vs. 10.4%, OR 1.24 [1.14–1.34]), pulmonary complications (4.9% vs 2.9%, OR 1.93 [1.70–2.20]), and unplanned readmission (12.6% vs. 11%, OR 1.14 [95% CI 1.06–1.23]). Conclusions: Smoking is associated with complications following major gastrointestinal surgery. Patients who smoke should be counseled prior to surgery regarding risks.
- Digestive system surgical procedures
- Elective surgical procedures
- Postoperative complications
ASJC Scopus subject areas