IMPORTANCE Treatment modalities for preauricular sinus tract infections vary. Effort should be taken to decrease methods that lead to increased recurrence after surgical excision. OBJECTIVE To determine whether incision and drainage (I & D) of infected congenital preauricular cysts is associated with increased rate of recurrence when compared with fine-needle aspiration or antibiotic treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Thiswas a 9-year (2006-2014) retrospective cohort study undertaken at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Children treated for preauricular sinus tract infections were identified using the procedure code for excision of preauricular pit, cyst, or sinus tract. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Postexcision recurrence. RESULTS Sixty-nine children ranging in age from 4 months to 17 years (mean age, 5.9 years) underwent excision of a preauricular cyst. Thirty-seven of 69 patients (54%) were female. Fifty-seven of 69 (83%) had a preoperative history of infection; the remainder had chronic drainage. Of children with preoperative infection, 27 were initially treated with incision and drainage (I & D), 12 were treated with fine-needle aspiration only, and 18 received antibiotic therapy alone. Overall, the recurrence rate was 8 in 69 (11.6%). Among the 27 patients with a preoperative history of infection treated with I & D, 5 lesions (18.5%) recurred, and among those who only received preoperative antibiotic therapy or fine-needle aspiration 1 in 30 lesions (3.3%) recurred (absolute difference of 15.2%; 95%CI, -1.7%to 33.6%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants and children undergoing excision of preauricular cysts, a history of infection was not associated with a higher recurrence rate. There was, however, evidence to suggest that a higher rate of recurrence exists among children who had a preoperative history of infection treated with I & D. Our results suggest a more conservative treatment of infected preauricular pit and/or sinus.
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