Associations between alcohol and cigarette use and type 1 and 2 myocardial infarction among people with HIV

Lydia N. Drumright*, Robin M. Nance, Stephanie A. Ruderman, Jimmy Ma, Bridget M. Whitney, Andrew Hahn, Rob J. Fredericksen, Brandon Luu, William B. Lober, Richard D. Moore, Matthew J. Budoff, Jeanne C. Keruly, Katerina Christopoulos, Sarah Puryear, Amanda Willig, Karen Cropsey, William C. Mathews, Edward Cachay, Laura Bamford, Joseph J. EronSonia Napravnik, Kenneth H. Mayer, Conall O'Cleirigh, Mary E. Mccaul, Geetanjali Chander, Matthew J. Feinstein, Michael S. Saag, Mari M. Kitahata, Susan R. Heckbert, Heidi M. Crane, Joseph A.C. Delaney

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: People with HIV have a higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) than the general population, with a greater proportion of type 2 MI (T2MI) due to oxygen demand–supply mismatch compared with type 1 (T1MI) resulting from atherothrombotic plaque disruption. People living with HIV report a greater prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use than do the general population. Alcohol use and smoking as risk factors for MI by type are not well studied among people living with HIV. We examined longitudinal associations between smoking and alcohol use patterns and MI by type among people living with HIV. Design and Methods: Using longitudinal data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort, we conducted time-updated Cox proportional hazards models to determine the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on adjudicated T1MI and T2MI. Results: Among 13 506 people living with HIV, with a median 4 years of follow-up, we observed 177 T1MI and 141 T2MI. Current smoking was associated with a 60% increase in risk of both T1MI and T2MI. In addition, every cigarette smoked per day was associated with a 4% increase in risk of T1MI, with a suggestive, but not significant, 2% increase for T2MI. Cigarette use had a greater impact on T1MI for men than for women and on T2MI for women than for men. Increasing alcohol use was associated with a lower risk of T1MI but not T2MI. Frequency of heavy episodic alcohol use was not associated with MI. Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the prioritization of smoking reduction, even without cessation, and cessation among people living with HIV for MI prevention and highlight the different impacts on MI type by gender.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)703-715
Number of pages13
JournalHIV Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • HIV
  • alcohol use
  • binge drinking
  • people with HIV
  • smoking
  • type 1 myocardial infarction
  • type 2 myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Health Policy


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