Associations between depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular health: Longitudinal results from CARDIA

Allison J. Carroll*, Mark Daniel Huffman, Lihui Zhao, David R. Jacobs, Jesse C. Stewart, Catarina I. Kiefe, Wendy Brunner, Kiang Liu, Brian L Hitsman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Depression is associated with increased risk of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease, while the association between depression and cardiovascular health (CVH) remains unknown. Because the natural course of depression varies widely, different patterns of depression, as well as co-occurring factors such as cigarette smoking, may influence this relationship. We examined potential interactions between longitudinal patterns of depression and smoking with CVH. Methods: Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we modeled trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores; Years 5, 10, 15, 20) and smoking (cigarettes/day; Years 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20). We calculated a modified American Heart Association (AHA) CVH Score (weight, blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, and diet; Year 20); higher scores indicate better CVH. Generalized linear models evaluated associations between depression trajectories, smoking trajectories, and their interaction with CVH Score. Results: The depression trajectory x smoking trajectory interaction was not associated with CVH Score, but main effects of depression trajectory (p <.001) and smoking trajectory (p <.001) were observed. Participants with patterns of subthreshold depression (β = −0.26, SE=0.08), increasing depression (β = −0.51 SE = 0.14), and high depression (β = −0.65, SE = 0.32) had lower CVH Scores than those without depression. Compared to never smokers, participants who quit smoking had higher CVH Scores (β = 0.38, SE = 0.11), while participants with the greatest smoking exposure had lower CVH Scores (β = −0.49, SE = 0.22). Limitations: CVH Scores were adapted from the AHA guidelines based on the available CARDIA data. Conclusions: Deleterious depression and smoking trajectories are independently but not synergistically associated with worse CVH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)583-591
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume260
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Fingerprint

Young Adult
Coronary Vessels
Smoking
Depression
Health
American Heart Association
Blood Glucose
Epidemiologic Studies
Linear Models
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cholesterol
Guidelines
Exercise
Diet
Blood Pressure
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular health
  • Depression
  • Health risk behaviors
  • Prospective study
  • Smoking
  • Trajectory modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

@article{0057d2df24354585b30560d2918bc68a,
title = "Associations between depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular health: Longitudinal results from CARDIA",
abstract = "Introduction: Depression is associated with increased risk of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease, while the association between depression and cardiovascular health (CVH) remains unknown. Because the natural course of depression varies widely, different patterns of depression, as well as co-occurring factors such as cigarette smoking, may influence this relationship. We examined potential interactions between longitudinal patterns of depression and smoking with CVH. Methods: Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we modeled trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores; Years 5, 10, 15, 20) and smoking (cigarettes/day; Years 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20). We calculated a modified American Heart Association (AHA) CVH Score (weight, blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, and diet; Year 20); higher scores indicate better CVH. Generalized linear models evaluated associations between depression trajectories, smoking trajectories, and their interaction with CVH Score. Results: The depression trajectory x smoking trajectory interaction was not associated with CVH Score, but main effects of depression trajectory (p <.001) and smoking trajectory (p <.001) were observed. Participants with patterns of subthreshold depression (β = −0.26, SE=0.08), increasing depression (β = −0.51 SE = 0.14), and high depression (β = −0.65, SE = 0.32) had lower CVH Scores than those without depression. Compared to never smokers, participants who quit smoking had higher CVH Scores (β = 0.38, SE = 0.11), while participants with the greatest smoking exposure had lower CVH Scores (β = −0.49, SE = 0.22). Limitations: CVH Scores were adapted from the AHA guidelines based on the available CARDIA data. Conclusions: Deleterious depression and smoking trajectories are independently but not synergistically associated with worse CVH.",
keywords = "Cardiovascular health, Depression, Health risk behaviors, Prospective study, Smoking, Trajectory modeling",
author = "Carroll, {Allison J.} and Huffman, {Mark Daniel} and Lihui Zhao and Jacobs, {David R.} and Stewart, {Jesse C.} and Kiefe, {Catarina I.} and Wendy Brunner and Kiang Liu and Hitsman, {Brian L}",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.049",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "260",
pages = "583--591",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Associations between depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular health : Longitudinal results from CARDIA. / Carroll, Allison J.; Huffman, Mark Daniel; Zhao, Lihui; Jacobs, David R.; Stewart, Jesse C.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Brunner, Wendy; Liu, Kiang; Hitsman, Brian L.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 260, 01.01.2020, p. 583-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Associations between depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular health

T2 - Longitudinal results from CARDIA

AU - Carroll, Allison J.

AU - Huffman, Mark Daniel

AU - Zhao, Lihui

AU - Jacobs, David R.

AU - Stewart, Jesse C.

AU - Kiefe, Catarina I.

AU - Brunner, Wendy

AU - Liu, Kiang

AU - Hitsman, Brian L

PY - 2020/1/1

Y1 - 2020/1/1

N2 - Introduction: Depression is associated with increased risk of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease, while the association between depression and cardiovascular health (CVH) remains unknown. Because the natural course of depression varies widely, different patterns of depression, as well as co-occurring factors such as cigarette smoking, may influence this relationship. We examined potential interactions between longitudinal patterns of depression and smoking with CVH. Methods: Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we modeled trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores; Years 5, 10, 15, 20) and smoking (cigarettes/day; Years 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20). We calculated a modified American Heart Association (AHA) CVH Score (weight, blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, and diet; Year 20); higher scores indicate better CVH. Generalized linear models evaluated associations between depression trajectories, smoking trajectories, and their interaction with CVH Score. Results: The depression trajectory x smoking trajectory interaction was not associated with CVH Score, but main effects of depression trajectory (p <.001) and smoking trajectory (p <.001) were observed. Participants with patterns of subthreshold depression (β = −0.26, SE=0.08), increasing depression (β = −0.51 SE = 0.14), and high depression (β = −0.65, SE = 0.32) had lower CVH Scores than those without depression. Compared to never smokers, participants who quit smoking had higher CVH Scores (β = 0.38, SE = 0.11), while participants with the greatest smoking exposure had lower CVH Scores (β = −0.49, SE = 0.22). Limitations: CVH Scores were adapted from the AHA guidelines based on the available CARDIA data. Conclusions: Deleterious depression and smoking trajectories are independently but not synergistically associated with worse CVH.

AB - Introduction: Depression is associated with increased risk of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease, while the association between depression and cardiovascular health (CVH) remains unknown. Because the natural course of depression varies widely, different patterns of depression, as well as co-occurring factors such as cigarette smoking, may influence this relationship. We examined potential interactions between longitudinal patterns of depression and smoking with CVH. Methods: Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we modeled trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores; Years 5, 10, 15, 20) and smoking (cigarettes/day; Years 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20). We calculated a modified American Heart Association (AHA) CVH Score (weight, blood glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, and diet; Year 20); higher scores indicate better CVH. Generalized linear models evaluated associations between depression trajectories, smoking trajectories, and their interaction with CVH Score. Results: The depression trajectory x smoking trajectory interaction was not associated with CVH Score, but main effects of depression trajectory (p <.001) and smoking trajectory (p <.001) were observed. Participants with patterns of subthreshold depression (β = −0.26, SE=0.08), increasing depression (β = −0.51 SE = 0.14), and high depression (β = −0.65, SE = 0.32) had lower CVH Scores than those without depression. Compared to never smokers, participants who quit smoking had higher CVH Scores (β = 0.38, SE = 0.11), while participants with the greatest smoking exposure had lower CVH Scores (β = −0.49, SE = 0.22). Limitations: CVH Scores were adapted from the AHA guidelines based on the available CARDIA data. Conclusions: Deleterious depression and smoking trajectories are independently but not synergistically associated with worse CVH.

KW - Cardiovascular health

KW - Depression

KW - Health risk behaviors

KW - Prospective study

KW - Smoking

KW - Trajectory modeling

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072226264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85072226264&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.049

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.049

M3 - Article

C2 - 31539696

AN - SCOPUS:85072226264

VL - 260

SP - 583

EP - 591

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -