Associations of FGF21 and GDF15 with mitochondrial dysfunction in children living with perinatally-acquired HIV: A cross-sectional evaluation of pediatric AIDS clinical trials group 219/219C

the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background In persons living with HIV, mitochondrial disease (MD) is difficult to diagnose, as clinical signs are non-specific with inconsistent patterns. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) are mitokines elevated in MD patients without HIV, and associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities in adults living with HIV. We assessed relationships of these biomarkers with MD in children living with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (CPHIV). Setting Cross-sectional study of CPHIV from Pediatric ACTG 219/219C classified by Mitochondrial Disease Criteria (MDC) that defines scores 2–4 as “possible” MD. Methods Each case with MDC equaling 4 (MDC4; n = 23) was matched to one randomly selected control displaying no MDC (MDC0; n = 23) based on calendar date. Unmatched cases with MDC equaling 3 (MDC3; n = 71) were also assessed. Plasma samples proximal to diagnoses were assayed by ELISA. Mitokine distributions were compared using Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlations were calculated, and associations with MD status were assessed by conditional logistic regression. Results Median FGF21 and GDF15 concentrations, respectively, were highest in MDC4 (143.9 and 1441.1 pg/mL), then MDC3 (104.0 and 726.5 pg/mL), and lowest in controls (89.4 and 484.7 pg/mL). Distributions of FGF21 (paired Wilcoxon rank sum p = 0.002) and GDF15 (paired Wilcoxon rank sum p<0.001) differed in MDC4 vs MDC0. Mitokine concentrations were correlated across all participants (r = 0.33; p<0.001). Unadjusted odds ratios of being MDC4 vs MDC0 were 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–25.92] for FGF21 and 3.5 (95%CI: 1.19–10.25) for GDF15. Relationships persisted after covariate adjustments. Conclusion FGF21 and GDF15 levels may be useful biomarkers to screen for CPHIV with mitochondrial dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0261563
JournalPloS one
Volume16
Issue number12 December
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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