Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change

Bertram Gawronski*, Galen V. Bodenhausen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1460 Scopus citations


A central theme in recent research on attitudes is the distinction between deliberate, "explicit" attitudes and automatic, "implicit" attitudes. The present article provides an integrative review of the available evidence on implicit and explicit attitude change that is guided by a distinction between associative and propositional processes. Whereas associative processes are characterized by mere activation independent of subjective truth or falsity, propositional reasoning is concerned with the validation of evaluations and beliefs. The proposed associative-propositional evaluation (APE) model makes specific assumptions about the mutual interplay of the 2 processes, implying several mechanisms that lead to symmetric or asymmetric changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. The model integrates a broad range of empirical evidence and implies several new predictions for implicit and explicit attitude change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)692-731
Number of pages40
JournalPsychological bulletin
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2006


  • Attitude change
  • Cognitive consistency
  • Dual-process models
  • Evaluative conditioning
  • Implicit measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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