Atoms made entirely of antimatter: Two methods produce slow antihydrogen

G. Gabrielse*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

78 Scopus citations


An antihydrogen (H-) atom-a positron (e+) in orbit about an antiproton (p-)-is the simplest atom made entirely of antimatter. Producing H- atoms that are cold enough to be trapped for precise laser spectroscopy, to compare antihydrogen and hydrogen, is a goal that has been pursued for many years. A prequel to this review summarized the techniques for accumulating cold p- and e+ that opened the way to slow H- production, along with crucial devices like the nested Penning trap that was developed to bring the p- and e+ together. Several exciting years have seen the first production, observations and studies of slow H- atoms-so far by two different methods. The demonstrations of e+ cooling of p- in a nested Penning trap led to observations of slow H- atoms produced in this way (method I) using two detection techniques. Field ionization detection of H- produced by method I makes it possible to go beyond the simple counting of H- atoms via charge exchange collisions-a method that seems to naturally produce H- atoms with essentially the low energy distribution of the p- from which they form.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
EditorsBenjamin Bederson, Herbert Walther
Number of pages63
StatePublished - 2005

Publication series

NameAdvances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
ISSN (Print)1049-250X

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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