Attitudes toward transgender men and women: Development and validation of a new measure

Thomas J. Billard*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


A series of three studies were conducted to generate, develop, and validate the Attitudes toward Transgender Men and Women (ATTMW) scale. In Study 1, 120 American adults responded to an open-ended questionnaire probing various dimensions of their perceptions of transgender individuals and identity. Qualitative thematic analysis generated 200 items based on their responses. In Study 2, 238 American adults completed a questionnaire consisting of the generated items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed two non-identical 12-item subscales (ATTM and ATTW) of the full 24-item scale. In Study 3, 150 undergraduate students completed a survey containing the ATTMW and a number of validity-testing variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the single-factor structures of the ATTM and ATTW subscales, and the convergent, discriminant, predictive, and concurrent validities of the ATTMW were also established. Together, our results demonstrate that the ATTMW is a reliable and valid measure of attitudes toward transgender individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number387
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Issue numberAPR
StatePublished - Apr 3 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Attitudes
  • Prejudice
  • Psychometric scales
  • Transgender
  • Transphobia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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