Audiovisual integration of letters in the human brain

Tommi Raij*, Kimmo Uutela, Riitta Hari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

207 Scopus citations


Letters of the alphabet have auditory (phonemic) and visual (graphemic) qualities. To investigate the neural representations of such audiovisual objects, we recorded neuromagnetic cortical responses to auditorily, visually, and audiovisually presented single letters. The auditory and visual brain activations first converged around 225 ms after stimulus onset and then interacted predominantly in the right temporo-occipito-parietal junction (280-345 ms) and the left (380-540 ms) and right (450-535 ms) superior temporal sulci. These multisensory brain areas, playing a role in audiovisual integration of phonemes and graphemes, participate in the neural network supporting the supramodal concept of a 'letter.' The dynamics of these functions bring new insight into the interplay between sensory and association cortices during object recognition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-625
Number of pages9
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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