Automatically indexing documents: Content vs. Reference

Shannon Bradshaw*, Kristian J Hammond

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Authors cite other work in many types of documents. Notable among these are research papers and web pages. Recently, several researchers have proposed using the text surrounding citations (references) as a means of automatically indexing documents for search engines, claiming that this technique is superior to indexing documents based on their content. While we ourselves have made this claim, we acknowledge that little empirical data has been presented to support it. Therefore, in the limited space available we present a terse overview of a study comparing reference to content as bases for indexing documents. This study indicates that reference identifies the value of documents more accurately and with a greater diversity of language than content.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages2
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002
Event2002 International Conference on intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 02) - San Francisca, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 13 2002Jan 16 2002


Other2002 International Conference on intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 02)
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisca, CA


  • Indexing precision
  • Reference-based indexing
  • Term diversity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction


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