Automating sleep stage classification using wireless, wearable sensors

Alexander J. Boe, Lori L. McGee Koch, Megan K. O’Brien, Nicholas Shawen, John A. Rogers, Richard L. Lieber, Kathryn J. Reid, Phyllis C. Zee, Arun Jayaraman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Polysomnography (PSG) is the current gold standard in high-resolution sleep monitoring; however, this method is obtrusive, expensive, and time-consuming. Conversely, commercially available wrist monitors such as ActiWatch can monitor sleep for multiple days and at low cost, but often overestimate sleep and cannot differentiate between sleep stages, such as rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM. Wireless wearable sensors are a promising alternative for their portability and access to high-resolution data for customizable analytics. We present a multimodal sensor system measuring hand acceleration, electrocardiography, and distal skin temperature that outperforms the ActiWatch, detecting wake and sleep with a recall of 74.4% and 90.0%, respectively, as well as wake, non-REM, and REM with recall of 73.3%, 59.0%, and 56.0%, respectively. This approach will enable clinicians and researchers to more easily, accurately, and inexpensively assess long-term sleep patterns, diagnose sleep disorders, and monitor risk factors for disease in both laboratory and home settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number131
Journalnpj Digital Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science Applications


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