Molecular chaperones influence the process of protein folding and, under conditions of stress, recognize non-native proteins to ensure that misfolded proteins neither appear nor accumulate. BAG-1, identified as an Hsp70 associated protein, was shown to have the unique properties of a negative regulator of Hsp70. Here, we demonstrate that BAG-1 inhibits the in vitro protein refolding activity of Hsp70 by forming stable ternary complexes with non-native substrates that do not release even in the presence of nucleotide and the co-chaperone, Hdj-1. However, the substrate in the BAG-1-containing ternary complex does not aggregate and remains in a soluble intermediate folded state, indistinguishable from the refolding-competent substrate-Hsp70 complex. BAG-1 neither inhibits the Hsp70 ATPase, nor has the properties of a nucleotide exchange factor; instead, it stimulates ATPase activity, similar to that observed for Hdj-1, but with opposite consequences. In the presence of BAG-1, the conformation of Hsp70 is altered such that the substrate binding domain becomes less accessible to protease digestion, even in the presence of nucleotide and Hdj-1. These results suggest a mechanistic basis for BAG-1 as a negative regulator of the Hsp70-Hdj-1 chaperone cycle.
- Protein folding
- Substrate release
- Ternary complex
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)