Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals

Jae A. Puckett*, Peter Cleary, Kinton Rossman, Brian Mustanski, Michael Newcomb

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, Mage = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-59
Number of pages12
JournalSexuality Research and Social Policy
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

Fingerprint

Transgender Persons
gender
surgery
Fear
Mental Health
Parental Consent
lack
Hormones
Minors
mental health
anxiety
puberty
Puberty
Insurance
Thorax
Therapeutics
insurance
incident
finance
reconstruction

Keywords

  • Barriers to transition
  • Gender nonconforming
  • Gender-affirming care
  • Genderqueer
  • Healthcare stigma
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Health(social science)
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

@article{335e0ef69b7b4abe962e975306ab10ff,
title = "Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals",
abstract = "Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9{\%} White, ages 16–73, Mage = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3{\%} were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7{\%} had undergone top surgery, and 5.5{\%} had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.",
keywords = "Barriers to transition, Gender nonconforming, Gender-affirming care, Genderqueer, Healthcare stigma, Transgender",
author = "Puckett, {Jae A.} and Peter Cleary and Kinton Rossman and Brian Mustanski and Michael Newcomb",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "48--59",
journal = "Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC",
issn = "1868-9884",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

}

Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals. / Puckett, Jae A.; Cleary, Peter; Rossman, Kinton; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael.

In: Sexuality Research and Social Policy, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.03.2018, p. 48-59.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Barriers to Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals

AU - Puckett, Jae A.

AU - Cleary, Peter

AU - Rossman, Kinton

AU - Mustanski, Brian

AU - Newcomb, Michael

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, Mage = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.

AB - Gender-affirming care, including hormone therapy, “top” (e.g., chest reconstruction surgery) and “bottom” (e.g., vaginoplasty, phalloplasty, metoidioplasty, etc.) surgeries, and puberty blockers, is an efficacious treatment of gender dysphoria for transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals. However, many TGNC people encounter significant barriers in accessing gender-affirming care, which we detail via results from on online study. Participants included 256 TGNC individuals (78.9% White, ages 16–73, Mage = 28.4). Among participants, 61.3% were receiving hormone therapy, 22.7% had undergone top surgery, and 5.5% had undergone bottom surgery. Open-ended responses (n = 201) were thematically analyzed and common barriers included finances and insurance issues, a lack of service availability, and fears or worries. Participants reported various systemic issues and incidents of bias within medical and mental health fields, as well as a lack of medical provider awareness and education. Other themes were interpersonal barriers (e.g., fears of rejection); age and need of parental consent for minors; other medical issues; and a lack of information about how to acquire care. These findings can be utilized to educate professionals in medical and mental health fields about barriers their TGNC patients may encounter in receiving affirming care and suggest a number of ways to improve access to these services.

KW - Barriers to transition

KW - Gender nonconforming

KW - Gender-affirming care

KW - Genderqueer

KW - Healthcare stigma

KW - Transgender

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026833946&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026833946&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8

DO - 10.1007/s13178-017-0295-8

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 48

EP - 59

JO - Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC

JF - Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC

SN - 1868-9884

IS - 1

ER -