Purpose: In metastatic castrate-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), combined androgen axis inhibition is a standard of care. Noninvasive biomarkers that guide initial therapy decisions are needed. We hypothesized that CellSearch circulating tumor cell (CTC) count, an FDA-cleared assay in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), is a relevant biomarker in mCSPC. Experimental Design: SWOG S1216 is a phase III prospective randomized trial of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with orteronel or bicalutamide for mCSPC. CellSearch CTC count was measured at registration (baseline). Prespecified CTC cut-off points of 0, 1-4, and ≥5 were correlated with baseline patient characteristics and, in a stratified subsample, were also correlated with two prespecified trial secondary endpoints: 7-month PSA ≤0.2 ng/mL versus 0.2-4.0 versus >4.0 (intermediate endpoint for overall survival); and progressionfree survival (PFS) ≤ versus >2 years. Results: A total of 523 patients submitted baseline samples, and CTCs were detected (median 3) in 33%. Adjusting for two trial stratification factors (disease burden and timing of ADT initiation), men with undetectable CTCs had nearly nine times the odds of attaining 7-month PSA ≤ 0.2 versus > 4.0 [OR 8.8, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.7-28.6, P < 0.001, N = 264] and four times the odds of achieving > 2 years PFS (OR 4.0, 95% CI, 1.9-8.5, P < 0.001, N = 336) compared with men with baseline CTCs ≥5. Conclusions: Baseline CT Ccount in mCSPC is highly prognostic of 7-month PSA and 2-year PFS after adjusting for disease burden and discriminates men who are likely to experience poor survival outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research