Baseline risk markers and visit-to-visit variability in relation to kidney outcomes – A post-hoc analysis of the PERL study

Viktor Rotbain Curovic*, Neil Roy, Tine W. Hansen, M. Luiza Caramori, David Z. Cherney, Ian H. De Boer, Mary Ann Emanuele, Irl B. Hirsch, Ildiko Lingvay, Janet B. Mcgill, Sarit Polsky, Rodica Pop-Busui, Ronald J. Sigal, Katherine R. Tuttle, Guillermo E. Umpierrez, Amisha Wallia, Sylvia E. Rosas, Peter Rossing

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Baseline risk variables and visit-to-visit variability (VV) of systolic blood pressure (SBP), HbA1c, serum creatinine, and uric acid (UA) are potential risk markers of kidney function decline in type 1 diabetes. Methods: Post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating allopurinol's effect on iohexol-derived glomerular filtration rate (iGFR) in type 1 diabetes with elevated UA. Primary outcome was iGFR change over three years. Linear regression with backwards selection of baseline clinical variables was performed to identify an optimized model forecasting iGFR change. Furthermore, VVs of SBP, HbA1c, serum creatinine, and UA were calculated using measurements from the run-in period; thereafter assessed by linear regression, with iGFR change as the dependent variable. Results: 404 participants were included in the primary analyses. In the optimized baseline variable model, higher HbA1c, SBP, iGFR, albuminuria, and heart rate, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist prescription were associated with greater iGFR decline. Higher VV of SBP was associated with greater iGFR decline (adjusted β (ml/min/1.73 m2/50 % increase): −0.79, p = 0.01). Conclusions: We identified several risk markers for faster iGFR decline in a high-risk population with type 1 diabetes. While further research is needed, our results indicate possible new and clinically feasible measures to risk stratify for DKD in type 1 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110119
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Blood pressure
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Clinical trial
  • Kidney function
  • Risk markers
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Variability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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