Bayer Filter Snapshot Hyperspectral Fundus Camera for Human Retinal Imaging

Joel Kaluzny, Hao Li, Wenzhong Liu, Peter Nesper, Justin Park, Hao F. Zhang*, Amani A. Fawzi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Purpose: To demonstrate the versatility and performance of a compact Bayer filter snapshot hyperspectral fundus camera for in-vivo clinical applications including retinal oximetry and macular pigment optical density measurements. Methods: 12 healthy volunteers were recruited under an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved protocol. Fundus images were taken with a custom hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of 460–630 nm. We determined retinal vascular oxygen saturation (sO2) for the healthy population using the captured spectra by least squares curve fitting. Additionally, macular pigment optical density was localized and visualized using multispectral reflectometry from selected wavelengths. Results: We successfully determined the mean sO2 of arteries and veins of each subject (ages 21–80) with excellent intrasubject repeatability (1.4% standard deviation). The mean arterial sO2 for all subjects was 90.9% ± 2.5%, whereas the mean venous sO2 for all subjects was 64.5% ± 3.5%. The mean artery–vein (A–V) difference in sO2 varied between 20.5% and 31.9%. In addition, we were able to reveal and quantify macular pigment optical density. Conclusions: We demonstrated a single imaging tool capable of oxygen saturation and macular pigment density measurements in vivo. The unique combination of broad spectral range, high spectral–spatial resolution, rapid and robust imaging capability, and compact design make this system a valuable tool for multifunction spectral imaging that can be easily performed in a clinic setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)629-635
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent eye research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 3 2017


  • Hyperspectral fundus imaging
  • macular pigment
  • oximetry
  • spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Ophthalmology


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