Background: Bedside placement of removable inferior vena cava filters (RVCF) is increasingly used in critically injured patients. The need for fluoroscopic equipment and specialized intensive care unit beds presents major challenges. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) eliminates such problems. The objective of the present study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of IVUS-guided bedside RVCF placement in critically injured patients. Methods: Between October 2004 and July 2006 47 IVUS-guided RVCF were placed at the bedside. Medical and trauma registry records were reviewed. Primary outcome was RVCF-related complications. Results: The mean patient age was 41 ± 19 years, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 30 ± 12. The right common femoral vein was chosen as the site of access in 40 patients, and the left common femoral vein was the access site in 7 patients. The insertion was performed 3.7 ± 2.5 days after admission. Four patients (8.5%) developed common femoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and three (6%) developed a peripheral pulmonary embolism (PE). Complications related to technique were recorded in two patients (4%) and included one misplacement and one access site bleeding with no further associated morbidity. Five patients died during the hospital stay from issues unrelated to RVCF. Forty-one patients were eligible for follow-up. Removal of RVCF was offered only to 8 patients and was performed successfully in 4 (10%) at a mean of 130 days (range: 44-183 days). Conclusions: In this study IVUS-guided bedside placement of RVCF was feasible but was also associated with complications. Follow-up was poor, and the rate of removal disappointingly low, underscoring the need for further exploration of the role of RVCF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas