The energy density of lithium-ion batteries can be increased by replacing the traditional graphite anode with a high capacity silicon anode. However, volume changes and interfacial instabilities cause a large irreversible capacity and a continual loss of lithium during cycling, which lead to rapid capacity loss. In this work, we add Li5FeO4 (LFO) to a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) cathode as a pre-lithiation additive, which increases the lithium inventory and extends the cycle life of Si-graphite/NMC full cells, and decreases the NMC particle degradation. LFO delivers a large 764 mAh g-1LFO capacity below 4.7 V vs Li/Li+. By tuning the LFO content in Si-graphite/LFO-NMC full cells, we show higher capacity, improved retention, lower impedance, and superior rate performance compared to full cells without LFO. Post-test characterizations demonstrate that LFO inclusion in the cathode matrix leads to less NMC secondary particle segregation/cracking and a thinner surface reduced layer on the NMC particles. The beneficial effects of LFO endure after the lithium reserve has been exhausted, highlighting a lasting synergy between the lithium source and electrode active materials. This study introduces a new approach to simultaneously increase lithium inventory and reduce cathode degradation, and makes critical advances toward enabling Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry