Benign by Design: Green and Scalable Synthesis of Zirconium UiO-Metal-Organic Frameworks by Water-Assisted Mechanochemistry

Bahar Karadeniz, Ashlee J. Howarth, Tomislav Stolar, Timur Islamoglu, Igor Dejanović, Martina Tireli, Megan C. Wasson, Su Young Moon, Omar K. Farha, Tomislav Friščić, Krunoslav Užarević*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


We present a solvent-free, green, and rapid mechanochemical route for the synthesis of a series of zirconium metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) composed of Zr6 cluster nodes, UiO-66, UiO-66-NH2, MOF-801, and MOF-804, both on a laboratory scale and by scalable and flow mechanochemical processing. The methodology, based on the use of a nonconventional zirconium dodecanuclear acetate cluster and a minute amount of water as an additive, affords high-quality MOFs in less than 1 h of milling, with minimal requirements for workup processing and eliminating the need for conventional hazardous solvents, such as dimethylformamide. Moreover, the use of a dodecanuclear zirconium acetate precursor circumvents the need for modulators resulting in acetic acid as the only byproduct of the reaction, which does not harm these acid-resistant materials. The porosity, thermal and chemical stability, as well as catalytic activity of mechanochemically prepared Zr-based MOFs are similar to those of solvothermally synthesized counterparts. Finally, the synthesis is readily applicable on a 10 g scale by using a planetary mill, and is also performed by solid-state flow synthesis using twin-screw extrusion (TSE), affording more than 100 g of catalytically active UiO-66-NH2 material in a continuous process at a rate of 1.4 kg/h.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15841-15849
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 5 2018


  • Catalytic activity
  • Mechanochemistry
  • Simple activation procedures
  • Twin-screw extrusion
  • Zirconium MOFs
  • Zirconium acetate precursor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Benign by Design: Green and Scalable Synthesis of Zirconium UiO-Metal-Organic Frameworks by Water-Assisted Mechanochemistry'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this