Benzodithiophene Hole-Transporting Materials for Efficient Tin-Based Perovskite Solar Cells

Sureshraju Vegiraju, Weijun Ke, Pragya Priyanka, Jen Shyang Ni, Yi Ching Wu, Ioannis Spanopoulos, Shueh Lin Yau, Tobin J. Marks*, Ming Chou Chen, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Developing efficient interfacial hole transporting materials (HTMs) is crucial for achieving high-performance Pb-free Sn-based halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, a new series of benzodithiophene (BDT)-based organic small molecules containing tetra- and di-triphenyl amine donors prepared via a straightforward and scalable synthetic route is reported. The thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties of two BDT-based molecules are shown to be structurally and energetically suitable to serve as HTMs for Sn-based PSCs. It is reported here that ethylenediammonium/formamidinium tin iodide solar cells using BDT-based HTMs deliver a champion power conversion efficiency up to 7.59%, outperforming analogous reference solar cells using traditional and expensive HTMs. Thus, these BDT-based molecules are promising candidates as HTMs for the fabrication of high-performance Sn-based PSCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1905393
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number45
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019


  • benzodithiophene
  • lead-free
  • perovskite solar cells
  • tin
  • triphenylamine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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