Between- and within-person structures of value traits and value states: Four different structures, four different interpretations

Ewa Skimina*, Jan Cieciuch, William Revelle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The circular structure of values has been verified mostly at a between-person level and on measures of general value preferences. In this manuscript, we argue that it is a simplification that neglected significant aspects of the value structures and distinguish four different types of structures: (a) between-person structure of value traits, (b) within-person structure of value traits, (c) between-person structure of value states, and (d) within-person structure of value states. We argue that the within-person structure of value states addresses the circular structure of values most accurately. Method: To compare all four structures, we collected three partially dependent samples (N1 = 449, N2 = 293, N3 = 218) of adults (age 17–57, M = 24). At three time points, separated by 5–7 weeks, respondents completed a questionnaire measure (Portrait Values Questionnaire-Revised [PVQ-RR]) of value preferences (value traits) and reported the importance of values in their everyday actions (value states) for 1 week in an experience sampling study. Results: The four types of value structures were stable over time. All four were also consistent with Schwartz's value model to some degree, but at the same time, there were some deviations. Conclusions: It is important to distinguish four types of value structures and be aware of their different interpretations that we outlined in this paper.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)951-969
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Personality
Volume89
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • value states
  • value structure
  • value traits
  • values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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