Bias Awareness Predicts Color Conscious Racial Socialization Methods among White Parents

Sylvia P. Perry*, Allison L. Skinner, Jamie L. Abaied

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The majority of White parents in the United States are uncomfortable discussing race with their children and tend to avoid it. When they do discuss race with their children, they often take a color blind approach—in which they emphasize a belief that race does not matter—instead of a color conscious approach—in which they acknowledge race-related issues. In the current study, we sought to explore the individual difference factors that may be associated with White American parents’ racial socialization practices. Results indicated that parents’ racial bias awareness was associated with greater willingness to discuss race with their children, increased color consciousness, and decreased color blindness; when statistically controlling for their racial attitudes, motivations to respond without prejudice, and interracial contact. The potential impacts of bias awareness interventions on White parents’ racial socialization behaviors are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1035-1056
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Social Issues
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)


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