During the last 6 years 33 bilateral nephrectomies have been performed for severe hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure on a dialysis program. Nephrectomy resulted in a prompt and sustained reduction in blood pressure, an improved sense of well-being and a gain of weight. Despite the fact that the mean hematocrit decreased from 25 to 18 per cent all patients thrived. The nephrectomy group showed an 85 per cent 5-year cumulative survival rate compared to 55 per cent in the non-nephrectomy group. There was 1 mortality and low morbidity. Simultaneous nephrectomy by 2 teams, using a posterior approach, proved more satisfactory than an anterior or bilateral flank approach. The indications for and arguments against bilateral nephrectomy are discussed.
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