Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site

Amanda Jonsson, Sahika Inal, Llke Uguz, Adam J. Williamson, Loïg Kergoat, Jonathan Rivnay, Dion Khodagholy, Magnus Berggren, Christophe Bernard, George G. Malliaras, Daniel T. Simon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


Local control of neuronal activity is central to many therapeutic strategies aiming to treat neurological disorders. Arguably, the best solution would make use of endogenous highly localized and specialized regulatory mechanisms of neuronal activity, and an ideal therapeutic technology should sense activity and deliver endogenous molecules at the same site for the most efficient feedback regulation. Here, we address this challenge with an organic electronic multifunctional device that is capable of chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site, at the single-cell scale. Conducting polymer electrodes recorded epileptiform discharges induced in mouse hippocampal preparation. The inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was then actively delivered through the recording electrodes via organic electronic ion pump technology. GABA delivery stopped epileptiform activity, recorded simultaneously and colocally. This multifunctional "neural pixel" creates a range of opportunities, including implantable therapeutic devices with automated feedback, where locally recorded signals regulate local release of specific therapeutic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9440-9445
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number34
StatePublished - Aug 23 2016


  • Controlled delivery
  • Electrophysiology
  • Epilepsy
  • Organic electronics
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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