Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyposis is a complex medical condition characterized by varying patterns of chronic innate and adaptive mucosal inflammation. Treatment of CRS has been traditionally limited to corticosteroids and sinus surgery; however, novel biologics have more recently been evaluated as steroid- and surgery-sparing options. While it is clear that there are different subtypes or endotypes of CRS, perhaps the most frequent presentation involves the features of type 2 inflammation, including a prominent tissue eosinophilia component. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on eosinophil biology as well as on the potential contribution of eosinophils and their mediators to the pathophysiology of CRS, drawing mechanistic conclusions mainly from studies of human sinus mucosal tissues, nasal secretions, and benefits (or lack thereof) from the use of various pharmacotherapies. The unavoidable conclusion derived from this approach is that eosinophils themselves cannot fully explain the underlying pathophysiology of this complex disorder.
- Nasal polyps
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine