Biomimetic and Biologically Compliant Soft Architectures via 3D and 4D Assembly Methods: A Perspective

Jay M. Taylor, Haiwen Luan, Jennifer A. Lewis, John A. Rogers, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Paul V. Braun*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Recent progress in soft material chemistry and enabling methods of 3D and 4D fabrication—emerging programmable material designs and associated assembly methods for the construction of complex functional structures—is highlighted. The underlying advances in this science allow the creation of soft material architectures with properties and shapes that programmably vary with time. The ability to control composition from the molecular to the macroscale is highlighted—most notably through examples that focus on biomimetic and biologically compliant soft materials. Such advances, when coupled with the ability to program material structure and properties across multiple scales via microfabrication, 3D printing, or other assembly techniques, give rise to responsive (4D) architectures. The challenges and prospects for progress in this emerging field in terms of its capacities for integrating chemistry, form, and function are described in the context of exemplary soft material systems demonstrating important but heretofore difficult-to-realize biomimetic and biologically compliant behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2108391
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 21 2022


  • 3D printing
  • 4D fabrication
  • biocompliant design
  • biomimetic design
  • directed assembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Biomimetic and Biologically Compliant Soft Architectures via 3D and 4D Assembly Methods: A Perspective'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this