Birth weight- and fetal weight-growth restriction: Impact on neurodevelopment

Iris G. Streimish, Richard A. Ehrenkranz, Elizabeth N. Allred, T. Michael O'Shea, Karl C K Kuban, Nigel Paneth, Alan Leviton*, Kristen Ecklund, Haim Bassan, Samantha Butler, Adré Duplessis, Cecil Hahn, Catherine Limperopoulos, Omar Khwaja, Janet S. Soul, Bhavesh Shah, Frederick Hampf, Herbert Gilmore, Susan McQuiston, Camilia R. MartinJane Share, Linda J. Van Marter, Sara Durfee, Robert M. Insoft, Sjirk J. Westra, Kalpathy Krishnamoorthy, Cynthia Cole, John M. Fiascone, Roy McCauley, Paige T. Church, Cecelia Keller, Karen J. Miller, Francis Bednarek, Jacqueline Wellman, Robin Adair, Bream Richard, Alice Miller, Albert Scheiner, Christy Stine, Richard A. Ehrenkranz, Cindy Miller, Nancy Close, Elaine Romano, Joanne Williams, T. Michael O'Shea, Barbara Specter, Deborah Allred, Robert Dillard, Don Goldstein, Deborah Hiatt, Gail Hounshell, Ellen Waldrep, Lisa Washburn, Cherrie D. Welch, Stephen C. Engelke, Ira Adler, Sharon Buckwald, Rebecca Helms, Kathyrn Kerkering, Scott S. MacGilvray, Peter Resnik, Carl Bose, Lynn A. Fordham, Lisa Bostic, Diane Marshall, Kristi Milowic, Janice Wereszczak, Mariel Poortenga, Mariel Betz, Steven L. Bezinque, Joseph Junewick, Wendy Burdo-Hartman, Lynn Fagerman, Kim Lohr, Steve Pastyrnak, Dinah Sutton, Ellen Cavenagh, Victoria J. Caine, Nicholas Olomu, Joan Price, Nigel Paneth, Padmani Karna, Michael D. Schreiber, Kate Feinstein, Leslie Caldarelli, Sunila E. O'Connor, Michael Msall, Susan Plesha-Troyke, Daniel Batton, Karen Brooklier, Beth Kring, Melisa J. Oca, Katherine M. Solomon, Joanna J. Seibert, Robert Lorenzo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Background: The newborn classified as growth-restricted on fetal weight curves, but not on birth weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Aims: To see (1) to what extent the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24. months corrected age differed among three groups of infants (those identified as SGA based on birth weight curves (B-SGA), those identified as SGA based on fetal weight curves only (F-SGA), and the referent group of infants considered AGA, (2) if girls and boys were equally affected by growth restriction, and (3) to what extent neurosensory limitations influenced what we found. Study design: Observational cohort of births before the 28th week of gestation. Outcome measures: Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Results: B-SGA, but not F-SGA girls were at an increased risk of a PDI < 70 (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) compared to AGA girls. B-SGA and F-SGA boys were not at greater risk of low developmental indices than AGA boys. Neurosensory limitations diminished associations among girls of B-SGA with low MDI, and among boys B-SGA and F-SGA with PDI < 70. Conclusions: Only girls with the most severe growth restriction were at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 24. months corrected age in the total sample. Neurosensory limitations appear to interfere with assessing growth restriction effects in both girls and boys born preterm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-771
Number of pages7
JournalEarly Human Development
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2012


  • Cognition disorders/epidemiology
  • Fetal growth retardation/epidemiology
  • Follow-up studies
  • Gestational age
  • Infant
  • Premature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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