Black and White Adults With CKD Hospitalized With Acute Kidney Injury: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

CRIC Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Rationale & Objective: Few studies have investigated racial disparities in acute kidney injury (AKI), in contrast to the extensive literature on racial differences in the risk of kidney failure. We sought to study potential differences in risk in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: We studied 2,720 self-identified Black or White participants with CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. Exposure: Self-reported race (Black vs White). Outcome: Hospitalized AKI (≥50% increase from nadir to peak serum creatinine). Analytical Approach: Cox regression models adjusting for demographics (age and sex), prehospitalization clinical risk factors (diabetes, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, receipt of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers), and socioeconomic status (insurance status and education level). In a subset of participants with genotype data, we adjusted for apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) high-risk status and sickle cell trait. Results: Black participants (n = 1,266) were younger but had a higher burden of prehospitalization clinical risk factors. The incidence rate of first AKI hospitalization among Black participants was 6.3 (95% CI, 5.5-7.2) per 100 person-years versus 5.3 (95% CI, 4.6-6.1) per 100 person-years among White participants. In an unadjusted Cox regression model, Black participants were at a modestly increased risk of incident AKI (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.01-1.48]) compared with White participants. However, this risk was attenuated and no longer significant after adjusting for prehospitalization clinical risk factors (adjusted HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.25]). There were only 11 AKI hospitalizations among individuals with high-risk APOL1 risk status and 14 AKI hospitalizations among individuals with sickle cell trait. Limitations: Participants were limited to research volunteers and potentially not fully representative of all CKD patients. Conclusions: In this multicenter prospective cohort of CKD patients, racial disparities in AKI incidence were modest and were explained by differences in prehospitalization clinical risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-618.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Acute kidney injury (AKI)
  • Black race
  • CRIC
  • White race
  • chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • clinical risk factors
  • health care inequity
  • hospitalization
  • racial disparities
  • serum creatinine (Scr)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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