Bloch wave HREM

L. D. Marks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


An analysis of the effects of beam convergence is carried out for high resolution electron microscope imaging, including the changes in diffraction across the illumination aperture by a Bloch wave approach. It is shown that the effect of a small tilt u is to introduce a perturbation u·{down triangle, open}ρ{variant} into the projected 2D Schrödinger equation for the Bloch waves. By using perturbation theory (essentially a k·p analysis), it is shown that the dominant effect is a modification of the non-linear convergence envelope term between different Bloch waves. The effects should be larger for defects than for single crystals, and important for thicknesses of more than ∼ 50 nm, thicknesses similar to those at which non-linear effects are important. The general trends with structure, elemental composition and incident electron voltage are briefly described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)351-355
Number of pages5
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1984

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation


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